United States History to 1865

Exploration to Revolution: Pre-Columbian Times to the 1770s

USI.3

The student will demonstrate knowledge of how early cultures developed in North America by

  1. a) describing how archaeologists have recovered material evidence of ancient settlements including Cactus Hill.
  2. b) locating where the American Indians lived, with emphasis on Arctic (Inuit), Northwest (Kwakiutl), Plains (Lakota), Southwest (Pueblo), and Eastern Woodland (Iroquois);
  3. c) describing how the American Indians used the resources in their environment.

SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

  • Have students brainstorm names they know of American Indian (First American) tribes.
  • Review the class-generated list and circle and/or add the five tribes covered in this section.
  • Introduce the Inuit and explain that they inhabited present-day Alaska and northern Canada. They lived in Arctic areas where the temperature is below freezing much of the year.
  • Locate present-day Alaska and northern Canada on a map.
  • Learn more about the Inuit people at http://www.crystalinks.com/inuit.html.
  • Create a poster or other visual aid that shows the Inuit throughout time.
  • Introduce the Kwakiutl and explain that they inhabited the Pacific Northwest coast, characterized by a rainy, mild climate.
  • Locate the Pacific Northwest coast on a map.
  • Learn more about the Kwakiutl people at http://www.native-languages.org/kwakiutl.htm.
  • Create a poster or other visual aid that shows the Kwakiutl throughout time.
  • Introduce the Sioux and explain that they inhabited the interior of the United States, called the Great Plains, which is characterized by dry grasslands.
  • Locate the interior of the United States on a map.
  • Create a poster or other visual aid that shows the Sioux throughout time.
  • Introduce the Pueblo and explain that they inhabited the southwest in present-day New Mexico and Arizona, where they lived in desert areas and areas bordering cliffs and mountains.
  • Locate the southwest in present-day New Mexico and Arizona on a map.
  • Learn more about the Pueblo at http://inkido.indiana.edu/w310work/romac/swest.htm.
  • Create a poster or other visual aid that shows the Pueblo throughout time.
  • Introduce the Iroquois and explain that they inhabited northeast North America, the Eastern Woodland, which is heavily forested.
  • Locate northeast North America and the Eastern Woodland, which is heavily forested.
  • Learn more about the Iroquois at http://www.mce.k12tn.net/indians/reports1/iroquois2.htm.
  • Create a poster or other visual aid that shows the Iroquois throughout time.Use the map of the United States at http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/atlas and fill in the tribe locations based on the following information. The Inuit inhabited present-day Alaska and northern Canada. They lived in Arctic areas where the temperature is below freezing much of the year. The Kwakiutl inhabited the Pacific Northwest coast, characterized by a rainy, mild climate. The Sioux inhabited the interior of the United States, called the Great Plains and characterized by dry grasslands. The Pueblo inhabited the Southwest in present-day New Mexico and Arizona, where they lived in desert areas and areas bordering cliffs and mountains. The Iroquois inhabited northeast North America, the Eastern Woodland, which is heavily forested.
  • Discuss the climate of each Indian region.
  • Brainstorm how climate affects food, clothing, and shelter. Have students use textbooks and/or other resources to prove/disprove their theories.
  • Explain how physical and climatic features of a geographic location influenced the culture and lifestyles of the American Indian (First American) tribes living there. Place students in pairs, or have them work individually. Give each student or pair a physical outline map of the United States (see http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/atlas/index.html). Instruct students to research the location of the following tribes: Inuit, Kwakiutl, Sioux, Pueblo, and Iroquois. Students may use a desk atlas, their textbook, and/or the Internet to find the locations.
  • Have the students use colored pencils to mark the locations on their maps, shading and labeling the appropriate areas. Have students title their maps and create a legend.
  • Have students consider how the physical and climatic features of each tribe's location influenced its culture and lifestyle. To help students grasp this concept, ask them how hurricane season influences or impacts their own life today -- their attendance at school, their vacations, etc. Have them consider ways that other factors in their environment might alter their lives. Ask students who have lived in other parts of the United States to describe ways that their previous location differs from or resembles their present location and ways the physical and climatic features of that location affected their lives. (Students also might consider how technology has altered our interactions with the environment, e.g., indoor soccer fields, football stadiums, and machines that make snow.) Help students name some ways the physical and climatic features of each tribe's location probably influenced its culture and lifestyle.
  • Have students locate on a contemporary political map of the United States three major cities located in the areas that once were home to the Indian tribes above. Have students use the Internet to gain information about climatic conditions in these areas: for example, have them refer to the United States Climate Page at http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/USclimate/states.fast.html for climatic data. Have students consider how these Indian tribes may have lived without the benefits of modern technology.

WEB SITES

http://www.crystalinks.com/inuit.html
Information on the Inuit

http://www.native-languages.org/kwakiutl.htm
Information on the Kwakiutl

http://inkido.indiana.edu/w310work/romac/swest.htm
Information on the Pueblo

http://www.mce.k12tn.net/indians/reports1/iroquois2.htm
Information on the Iroquois

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